To the extent that value-addition to minerals is only achievable by a well-trained and fully equipped labour force (technicians, technologists, engineers, designers, entrepreneurs, etc.), through enabling institutions and networks, the human resource development factor lies at the heart of mineral beneficiation. Does Africa have this capacity? The question of capacity was the most significant, and least disputed, finding of MISTRA’s “Use and Displacement of Hydrogen Fuel Cells” research. The readiness of the continent and a country to effectively beneficiate mineral resources is dependent on the availability of appropriate human capital, competitiveness and an enabling policy environment. Mineral beneficiation is practised mainly out of resource-rich countries and contributes to sustainable job creation, social development and economic growth (i.e. China, the US, Australia, etc.). Africa’s resource rich countries, if focusing on beneficiation as an avenue to improve economic growth might extend the returns from mining activity to a broader segment of their home population. This relies on significant increases in mineral processing skills, supporting policy development, and the investment in infrastructure. This paper studies mineral beneficiation in African resource-rich countries aiming at providing recommendations for countries to better beneficiate available mineral resources, to create an even better sustainable development within the countries and their surroundings.